IAS Resources


How to Prepare & score good marks in Geography Optional for UPSC Mains

Geography is the subject which can be best handled and scored excellent marks if you possess the scientific approach for its preparations.theis subject incorporates the climate, theories, and locations of different regions. If you can conquer these topics, then geography can attain you good marks.

Never opt for the subject which never incites you as you can never score good marks in it.

Geography comprises of 2 papers- they are as follows:-

  1. World Geography- Incorporates theories and various processes
  2. Indian Geography- Concerns about the application of all the processes and theories discussed in the first paper.

To have an integrated knowledge of this subject you have to follow and study the NCERT books from class VI-XII.

The following are details of the papers:-

Paper I:-

Every year the pattern of the questions changes, so you cannot take the risk of leaving any topic. You have to prepare every topic and make notes for them so that if you come across any question which is not prepared then at least you can make writing the answer as your concepts clear.

Paper 2:-

This paper comprises of questions which have to be answered analytically and in detail so you should prepare the entire topic in details and also focus on the point that if you desire to get more marks, then your answer should be written with maps and diagrams.

For getting an idea about writing detailed answers you can consult the Yojana and the Kurukshetra.

You have to learn to draw maps with the free hand and also point out the regions related to agriculture, soil, weather, rainfall, etc.

The process of preparation:-

If you are serious to clear the IAS exam, then you have o start your exam preparation from a year before the examination. Foremost prepare the strategic and practical time table which will be comprised of the entire topic and the time duration allotted to prepare every topic. Start studying the topics and try to retain as much knowledge as you can because this will be helpful for you in writing the answers in the exams.

Best answers are those who are written with diagrams and maps.

Also, prefer to answer the questions which demand more diagrams because these answers are scoring and mostly candidate don’t select these questions as well.

You have to practice answer writing a lot, and you can do it by solving one detailed question regularly. Mark your time in which you have completed one answer, and simultaneously you will understand how many questions you can answer in the examination time allotted.

If you answer 2-3 questions daily then you will notice yourself that your mistakes have reduced, you are taking less time to write the answers, and all this will be very beneficial at the time of examination.

The most vital part in the second paper is that you have to be aware of the happenings in your surroundings and prepare al the topics of the subjects which are related to the happenings of the present era.

Remember one thing with continuous practice you will become perfect in writing answers with proper maps and diagrams which will fetch you more marks.

While you read the newspapers regularly, start cutting down the articles or blogs which you think is related to your topics and simultaneously prepares notes for them.

We hope that this write-up will be beneficial for all the candidates who are planning to take up geography as their optional.

Best of Luck!


Preparatory tips for Geology Optional subject for UPSC 2018

One such optional subject which is not common and not opted by most of the IAS aspirants is Geology. This subject is a scoring subject but needs particular attention as there are lots of techniques which are involved while preparing this subject. This article will inform you everything about this subject which can be opting as an optional subject by IAS aspirants.

Geology is best for:-

This subject should be taken by those aspirants who had this subject in their graduation and possess in-depth knowledge of the subject matter.

Advantages of taking Geology as an optional subject:-

  1. Very scoring subject.
  2. Being a scientific subject, you don’t have to study the subject in details like the other theoretical subjects such as history or political science.
  3. Preparation should be to the point as well as the writing answer pattern.
  4. Easily understandable.

Disadvantages of taking Geology as an optional subject:-

  1. It is mandatory to have previous knowledge about the subject as it is entirely a specialized subject.
  2. The syllabus is vast which is time eating.
  3. You should be passionate about the subject.

Guidelines for Geology:-

  1. Paper 1 encompasses paleontology, geotectonic, geomorphology, etc.
  2. Paper II – questions are mostly asked from the topics- mineralogy, igneous, geochemistry, and petrology and metamorphic, etc.
  3. You have to concentrate ore genesis, mineral revelation, etc.
  4. Even focus on the environmental geology.
  5. Environmental geology is also important.
  6. It is recommended that you focus on mineral revelation, ore genesis, Indian mineral silt, etc.
  7. You can expect questions from mineral trading and lending, the geology of energies, designing topography, groundwater science, underground water examination, issues and administration, incident and designation of water.
  8. In this optional, no topic should be left uncovered.


We hope that this article will be helpful and you can know opt for this scientific subject once you are cent percent sure.


Good Luck!.